Cloud Computing

Cloud Computing is an approach to offer IT Services to customers remotely is called Cloud Computing. It is the practice of using IT & Network which are physically hosted in a remote location (mostly on the Internet) to store, manage and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer. It is the […]

Network Topology Types

“The layout pattern & connectivity scheme between the devices in a network is called network topology”. It is a virtual shape or structure of the network. Devices on the network are called as nodes. The most common nodes are computers and peripheral devices. Network topology is a virtual illustration of these nodes and their connections […]

OSI Model Summary Cheatsheet

Principles of Bit Errors – I

Errors occurring to data during the transmission process are called Bit Errors (BER). It is a key parameter that is used in assessing systems that transmit digital data from one location to another. Specifically, it is the error of a single number between receiving and sending data signals. BER is critical for radio data links, Optical data […]

BGP Local Preference (LOCAL_PREF)

BGP LOCAL_PREF is the Second BGP attribute if we dive deep into BGP’s algorithm of best path selection followed by aggregate (detailed in my first post in BGP section).  When an AS (autonomous system) has multiple routes to another AS, the LOCAL_PREF indicates the degree of preference for one route over the other routes. The […]

BGP Weight

BGP Weight is the first BGP attribute if we dive deep into BGP’s algorithm of best path selection followed by Local_Preference & aggregate (detailed in my first post in BGP section). Weight is vendor specific (Cisco proprietary) so it is found only on Cisco routers. Weight is always local on a router and it is […]

Wireshark Operators

Wireshark is the most useful & popular tool for packet Level deep Network Analysis & Troubleshooting. Most importantly, it is open source. It is like a measuring meter or device to find and examine what is going on inside a network cable or port just like a multimeter is used by an electrician to examine […]


TLV (Type-Length-Value or Tag-Length-Value) is an encoding scheme used for optional information element in a certain protocol. The type and length are fixed in size (typically 1-4 bytes), and the value field is of variable size. Type: It is simply the data being processed, a binary code, often simply alphanumeric, which indicates the kind of field that this […]