Wireshark Operators

Wireshark is the most useful & popular tool for packet Level deep Network Analysis & Troubleshooting. Most importantly, it is open source. It is like a measuring meter or device to find and examine what is going on inside a network cable or port just like a multimeter is used by an electrician to examine […]


TLV (Type-Length-Value or Tag-Length-Value) is an encoding scheme used for optional information element in a certain protocol. The type and length are fixed in size (typically 1-4 bytes), and the value field is of variable size. Type: It is simply the data being processed, a binary code, often simply alphanumeric, which indicates the kind of field that this […]

IS-IS Levels & Relationships

IS-IS creates flooding boundaries logical by breaking the network into routing domain levels i.e. A level2 routing domain and multiple level1 routing domains. The single Level 2 routing domain could be analogous to OSPF Area0 and multiple Level 1 routing domains are analogous to other OSPF Areas. Basically, IS-IS has two layer hierarchy: Level-2 (the backbone) Level-1 […]

A brief flashback of IS-IS – Part II

Hello PDU’s of IS-IS: IS-IS has three types of Hello PDUs: i. ESH (ES Hello – sent by ES to an IS) ii. ISH (IS Hello – sent by IS to an ES) iii. IIH (IS-IS Hello – sent between two ISs)     Routing Levels Level0: Used to locate end systems Level1: Routing within an area […]

Adjacencies in IS-IS

IS-IS Protocol has two types of nodes (since the roots of IS-IS are based on ISO Connectionless Network Protocol) i.e. IS & ES. ES (End System): A workstation or network host (limited routing capability) IS (Intermediate Systems): Network devices such as routers with full packet-forwarding capabilities. The word intermediate refers to the capabilities of routers as intermediate forwarding or relay […]

OSPF Virtual Links

Virtual Link is a non-Physical connectivity or link. As we know OPSF must be connected with Backbone Area0 but sometime it becomes difficult due to some reasons. So there we required Virtual Links for logical connection to Backbone. Also known as logical link which uses in least cost path connectivity between routers or ABR or […]

OSPF Authentication

What is Authentication: Authentication is the mechanism of recognizing the identity of a user. Associating an incoming request with a set of identifying credentials is called Authentication.    The credentials provided are compared to those in the database of the authorized user’s information register on a local operating system or somewhere remote. If the user is […]

Yet another difference b/w IS-IS and OSPF

Neighbour is someone who lives nearby, normally in a house or apartment that is next door or, in the case of houses, across the street. Some neighbors are adjacent while some are not. People form friendships with their neighbours, and help them by sharing their information & tasks. Similarly, in Network & routing world there […]